16 Ocak 2013 Çarşamba

Newspapers in California (M)


SEARCH RESULTS
 

NameAddressContact

Madera Tribune100 E. 7th Street
Madera, CA 93637
Madera
559-674-2424
www.maderatribune.com/

Malibu Times3864 Las Flores Canyon
Malibu, CA 90265
Los Angeles
310-456-5507
www.malibutimes.com/

Mammoth Times452 Old Mammoth Road
Mammoth Lakes, CA 93546
Mono
760-934-3929
mammothtimes.com/

Manteca Bulletin531 E. Yosemite Avenue
Manteca, CA 95336
San Joaquin
209-249-3500
www.mantecabulletin.com/

Marin Independent JournalP.O. Box 6150
Novato, CA 94948-6150
415-883-8600
www.marinij.com/

Mariposa Gazette5024 Highway 140
Mariposa, CA 95338
Mariposa
209-966-2500
www.mariposagazette.com/

McKinleyville PressP.O. Box 2593
McKinleyville, CA 95519
Humboldt
707-839-0795
www.mckinleyvillepress.com/

Mendocino Beacon450 N. Franklin Street
Fort Bragg, CA 95437
Mendocino
707-937-5874
www.mendocinobeacon.com/

Merced Sun-Star3033 N G Street
Merced, CA 95340
Merced
209-722-1511
www.mercedsun-star.com/

MessengerP.O. Box 1106
Topanga, CA 90290
Los Angeles
310-455-1303
www.topangamessenger.com/

Metro550 S. FirStreet Street
San Jose, CA 95111
Santa Clara
408-298-8000
www.metroactive.com/metro/

Metro Santa Cruz115 Cooper Street
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Santa Cruz
831-457-9000
www.metroactive.com/cruz/

Mid-County Post831 Bay Avenue, Suite 1C
Capitola, CA 95010
Santa Cruz
831-476-9130
www.mcpost.com/

MidValley News11401 East Valley Boulevard, Suite 100
El Monte, CA 91731
Los Angeles
626-443-1753
www.midvalleynewsonline.com/

Midway Driller800 Center Street
Taft, CA 93268
Kern
661-763-3171
www.taftmidwaydriller.com/

Milpitas Post59 Marylinn Drive
Milpitas, CA 95035
Santa Clara
408-262-2454
www.themilpitaspost.com/

Modesto BeeP.O. Box 3928
Modesto, CA 95352-3928
209-578-2000
www.modbee.com/

Modoc County RecordP.O. Box 531
Alturas, CA 96101-0531
530-233-2632
www.modocrecord.com/

Montecito Journal1122 Coast Village Circle
Montecito, CA 93108
Santa Barbara
805-565-1860
www.montecitojournal.net/

Monterey County HeraldP.O. Box 271
Monterey, CA 93942-0271
831-372-3311
www.montereyherald.com/

Monterey County Weekly668 Williams Avenue
Seaside, CA 93955
Monterey
831-394-5656
www.montereycountyweekly.com/

Moorpark Acorn1203 Flynn Road, Suite 140
Camarillo, CA 93012
Ventura
805-484-2403
www.mpacorn.com/

Moorpark Acorn1203 Flynn Road, Suite 140
Camarillo, CA 93012
Ventura
805-484-2403
www.mpacorn.com/

Morgan Hill TimesP.O. Box 757
Morgan Hill, CA 95038
Santa Clara
408-779-4106
www.morganhilltimes.com

Mount Shasta HeraldP.O. Box 127
Mount Shasta, CA 96067
Siskiyou
530-926-5214
www.mtshastanews.com/

Mountain DemocratP.O. Box 1088
Placerville, CA 95667-1088
530-622-1255
www.mtdemocrat.com/

Mountain EnterpriseP.O. Box 610
Frazier Park, CA 93225
Kern
661-245-3794
www.MountainEnterprise.com/

Mountain NewsP.O. Box 2410
Lake Arrowhead, CA 92352-2410
909-336-3555
www.mountain-news.com/

Mountain Times1130 G Street
Reedley, CA 93654
Fresno
559-638-2244
www.reedleyexponent.com/publications/orange_cove_and_mountain_times/

Mountain View VoiceP.O. Box 405
Mountain View, CA 94042
Santa Clara
650-964-6300
www.mv-voice.com/

Mountaineer ProgressP. O. Box 248
Wrightwood, CA 92397
San Bernardino
760-249-3245
www.mtprogress.net

Newspapers in California (L)

NameAddressContact

L.A. Weekly3861 Sepulveda Boulevard
Culver City, CA 90230
Los Angeles
323-465-9909
www.laweekly.com/

La Canada Valley Sun1061 Valley Sun Lane
La Canada Flintridge, CA 91011
Los Angeles
818-790-8774
www.lacanadaonline.com/

La Opinion411 W 5th Street
Los Angeles, CA 90013
Los Angeles
213-622-8332
www.laopinion.com/

La Prensa651 Third Avenue, Suite C
San Diego, CA 91910
San Diego
619-425-7400
www.laprensa-sandiego.org/

La Quinta SunP.O. Box 2734
Palm Springs, CA 92263
Riverside
760-322-8889
www.laquintasun.com/

Laguna Beach Independent1146 Glenneyre Street
Laguna Beach, CA 92651
Orange
949-497-6500
www.lagunabeachindependent.com/

Lake County NewsP.O. Box 305
Lakeport, CA 95453
Lake
707-245-4550
lakeconews.com/

Lake County Record-BeeP. O. Box 849
Lakeport, CA 95453
Lake
707-263-5636
www.record-bee.com/

Lamorinda WeeklyP.O. Box 6133
Moraga, CA 94570-6133
925-301-9897
www.lamorindaweekly.com/

Lassen County Times100 Grand Avenue
Susanville, CA 96130
Lassen
530-257-5321
www.lassennews.com/

Lemoore Advance339 W D Street A
Lemoore, CA 93245
Kings
559-924-5361
www.thelemooreadvance.com/

Lincoln News Messenger553 F Street
Lincoln, CA 95648
Placer
916-645-7733
www.lincolnnewsmessenger.com/

Lodi News-Sentinel125 N. Church Street
Lodi, CA 95240
San Joaquin
209-369-2761
www.lodinews.com/

Lompoc Record115 North H Street
Lompoc, CA 93438
Santa Barbara
805-736-2313
www.lompocrecord.com/

Long Beach Business Journal2599 E. 28th Street, Suite 212
Signal Hill, CA 90755-2139
562-988-1222
www.lbbj.com/

Loomis News3550 Taylor Road
Loomis, CA 95650
Placer
916-652-7939
www.theloomisnews.com/

Los Altos Town Crier138 Main Street
Los Altos, CA 94022
Santa Clara
650-948-9000
www.latc.com/

Los Angeles Daily NewsP.O. Box 4200
Woodland Hills, CA 91365
Los Angeles
818-713-3000
www.dailynews.com/

Los Angeles Downtown News1264 W. 1st Street
Los Angeles, CA 90026-5831
213-481-1448
www.downtownnews.com/

Los Angeles Times202 W. 1st Street
Los Angeles, CA 90012
Los Angeles
213-237-5000
www.latimes.com/

Los Banos Enterprise1253 W. I Street
Los Banos, CA 93635
Merced
209-826-3831
www.losbanosenterprise.com/

Los Gatos Observer17681 Foster Road
Los Gatos, CA 95030
Santa Clara
408-395-6767
losgatosobserver.com/

Los Gatos Weekly-TimesP.O. Box 65
Los Gatos, CA 95031-0065
408-354-3110
www.svcn.com/los_gatos/

Newspapers in California (K)

NameAddressContact

Kern Valley SunP.O. Box 3074
Lake Isabella, CA 93240-3074
760-379-3667
www.kvsun.com/

King City Rustler522-A Broadway
King City, CA 93930
Monterey
831-385-4880
www.kingcityrustler.com/

Kingsburg Recorder1467 Marion Street
Kingsburg, CA 93631
Fresno
559-897-2993
www.kingsburgrecorder.com/

Newspapers in California (J)

NameAddressContact

Jackson Ledger-Dispatch10776 Argonaut Lane
Jackson, CA 95642
Amador
209-223-1767
www.ledger-dispatch.com/

Jewish ObserverP.O. Box 261661
Encino, CA 91426-1661
818-996-1220
www.jewishobserver-la.com/

Newspapers in California (I)

NameAddressContact

Idyllwild Town CrierP.O. Box 157
Idyllwild, CA 92549-0157
951-659-2145
www.idyl.com/

Imperial Valley Press Online205 N. 8th Street
El Centro, CA 92243
Imperial
760-337-3400
www.ivpressonline.com/

Independent1375 Sunflower Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
Orange
714-966-4690
www.hbindependent.com/

Independent2250 First Street
Livermore, CA 94550
Alameda
925-447-8700
www.independentnews.com/

Independent Voice529 N. Adams Street, Suite C
Dixon, CA 95620
Solano
707-678-8917
www.independentvoice.com/

Indio SunP.O. Box 2734
Palm Springs, CA 92263
Riverside
760-322-8889
www.thedesertsun.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=yourtown05

Inland Valley Daily Bulletin2041 East Fourth Street
Ontario, CA 91764
San Bernardino
909-987-6397
www.dailybulletin.com/

Inter Mountain NewsP.O. Box 1030
Burney, CA 96013
Shasta
530-335-4533
www.theimnews.com/

Investor's Business Daily12655 Beatrice Street
Los Angeles, CA 90066-7300
310-448-6700
www.investors.com/

Inyo Register450 E Line Street
Bishop, CA 93514
Inyo
760-873-3535
www.inyoregister.com/

Newspapers in California (H)

NameAddressContact

Half Moon Bay ReviewP.O. Box 68
Half Moon Bay, CA 94019-0068
650-726-4424
www.hmbreview.com/

Hesperia Star17045 Main Street
Hesperia, CA 92345
San Bernardino
760-956-7827
www.hesperiastar.com/

Hi-Desert Star56445 29 Palms Highway
Yucca Valley, CA 92284
San Bernardino
760-365-3315
www.hidesertstar.com/

Holtville Tribune570 Holt Avenue
Holtville, CA 92250
Imperial
760-356-2995
www.tribwekchron.com/

Humboldt Beacon936 Main Street
Fortuna, CA 95540
Humboldt
707-725-6166
www.humboldtbeacon.com/

Huntington Beach NewsP.O. Box 228
Huntington Beach, CA 92648
Orange
714-378-1243
www.hbnews.us/

Newspapers in California (G)

NameAddressContact

Galt HeraldP.O. Box 307
Galt, CA 95632
Sacramento
209-745-1551
galtheraldonline.com/

Gilroy DispatchP.O. Box 22365
Gilroy, CA 95021-2365
408-842-6400
www.gilroydispatch.com/

Glendale News Press221 N. Brand Boulevard, 2nd Floor
Glendale, CA 91203
Los Angeles
818-637-3200
www.glendalenewspress.com/

Gold Country TimesP.O. Box 897
Sutter Creek, CA 95685
Amador
209-267-9886
www.goldcountrytimes.com/

Goleta Valley Voice725 S. Kellogg Avenue
Goleta, CA 93117
Santa Barbara
805-681-5905
www.goletavalleyvoice.com/

Gonzales Tribune522-A Broadway
King City, CA 93930
Monterey
831-385-4880
www.gonzalestribune.com/

Good Times1205 Pacific Avenue, Suite 30
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Santa Cruz
831-458-1100
www.gdtimes.com/

Greenfield News522-A Broadway
King City, CA 93930
Monterey
831-385-4880
www.greenfieldnews.com/

Gridley Herald680 Washington Street
Gridley, CA 95948
Butte
530-846-3661
www.gridleyherald.com/

Grunion Gazette5225 East 2nd Street
Long Beach, CA 90803
Los Angeles
562-433-2000
www.gazettes.com/

Newspapers in California (F)

NameAddressContact

Feather River BulletinP.O. Box B
Quincy, CA 95971
Plumas
530-283-0800
www.plumasnews.com/

Fillmore GazetteP.O. Box 865
Fillmore, CA 93016
Ventura
805-524-2481
www.fillmoregazette.com/

Folsom Telegraph49 Natoma Street, Suite D
Folsom, CA 95630
Sacramento
916-985-2581
www.folsomtelegraph.com/

Fontana Herald News16981 Foothill Boulevard, Suite N
Fontana, CA 92334
San Bernardino
909-822-2231
www.fontanaheraldnews.com/

Foothills Paper7125 Foothill Boulevard
Tujunga, CA 91042
Los Angeles
818-951-8562
www.thefoothillspaper.com/

Foothills Sun GazetteP.O. Box 7
Exeter, CA 93221
Tulare
559-592-3171
www.thesungazette.com/

Fort Bragg Advocate-News450 N. Franklin Street
Fort Bragg, CA 95437
Mendocino
707-964-5642
www.advocate-news.com/

Free LanceP.O. Box 1417
Hollister, CA 95023
San Benito
831-637-5566
www.freelancenews.com/

Fresno Bee1626 E Street
Fresno, CA 93786-0001
559-441-6111
www.fresnobee.com/

Newspapers in California (E)

NameAddressContact

Eagle and TimesP.O. Box 748
Imperial Beach, CA 91933
San Diego
619-429-5555
www.imperialbeachnewsca.com/

East Bay Express620 3rd Street
Oakland, CA 94607
Alameda
510-879-3700
www.eastbayexpress.com/

East Bay Express620 3rd Street
Oakland, CA 94607
Alameda
510-879-3700
www.eastbayexpress.com/

El Dorado Hills Telegraph895 Embarcadero Drive
El Dorado Hills, CA 95762
El Dorado
916-939-0520
www.edhtelegraph.com/

El Mensajero333 Valencia Street, Suite 410
San Francisco, CA 94103
San Francisco
415-206-7230
www.elmensajero.com/

El ObservadorP.O Box 1990
San Jose, CA 95109
Santa Clara
408-938-1700
www.el-observador.com/

Elk Grove Citizen8970 Elk Grove Boulevard
Elk Grove, CA 95624
Sacramento
916-685-3945
www.egcitizen.com/

Escalon Times122 South Third Avenue
Oakdale, CA 95361
Stanislaus
209-847-3021
www.escalontimes.com/

Newspapers in California (D)


SEARCH RESULTS
 

NameAddressContact

Daily Breeze21250 Hawthorne Boulevard., Suite 170
Torrance, CA 90503
Los Angeles
310-540-5511
www.dailybreeze.com/

Daily DemocratP.O. Box 730
Woodland, CA 95776-0730
530-662-5421
www.dailydemocrat.com/

Daily Independent224 E. Ridgecrest Boulevard.
Ridgecrest, CA 93556
Kern
760-375-4481
www.ridgecrestca.com/

Daily News255 Constitution Drive
Menlo Park, CA 94025
San Mateo
650-391-1000
www.paloaltodailynews.com/

Daily PressP.O. Box 1389
Victorville, CA 92393-1389
760-955-5345
www.vvdailypress.com/

Daily Republic1250 Texas Street
Fairfield, CA 94533
Solano
707-425-4646
www.dailyrepublic.com/

Daily Republican754 Third Street
Clovis, CA 93612
Fresno
559-298-9349
www.dailyrepublican.com/

Daily TriplicateP.O. Box 277
Crescent City, CA 95531-0277
707-464-2141
www.triplicate.com/

Davis Enterprise315 G Street
Davis, CA 95617-1470
530-756-0800
www.davisenterprise.com/

Del Mar Times565 Pearl Street, Suite 300
La Jolla, CA 92037
San Diego
858-459-4201
www.delmartimes.net/

Delhi ExpressP.O. Box 445
Delhi, CA 95315
Merced
209-678-7190
www.delhiexpressnews.com/

Desert Dispatch130 Coolwater Lane
Barstow, CA 92311
San Bernardino
760-256-2257
www.desertdispatch.com/

Desert SunP.O. Box 2734
Palm Springs, CA 92263-2734
760-322-8889
www.mydesert.com/

Desert Trail6396 Adobe Road
Twentynine Palms, CA 92277
San Bernardino
760-367-3577
www.deserttrail.com/

Dispatch34932 Calle del Sol, Suite B
Capistrano Beach, CA 92624
Orange
949-388-7700
www.thecapistranodispatch.com/

Downey Patriot8301 E. Florence Avenue, Suite 100
Downey, CA 90240
Los Angeles
562-904-3668
www.thedowneypatriot.net/

Newspapers in California (C)


 

NameAddressContact

Calaveras EnterpriseP.O. Box 1197
San Andreas, CA 95249
Calaveras
209-754-3861
www.calaverasenterprise.com/

Californian123 West Alisal Street
Salinas, CA 93901
Monterey
831-424-2221
www.californianonline.com/

Camarillo Acorn1203 Flynn Road, Suite 140
Camarillo, CA 93012
Ventura
805-484-2403
www.thecamarilloacorn.com/

Cambrian2442 Main Street
Cambria, CA 93428
San Luis Obispo
805-927-8652
media.sanluisobispo.com/archive/cambrian.pdf

Canyon News9440 Santa Monica Boulevard, Suite 515
Beverly Hills, CA 90210
Los Angeles
310-277-6017
www.canyon-news.com

Carmel Pine ConeP.O. Box G1
Carmel, CA 93921-0796
831-624-0162
www.carmelpinecone.com/

Carmichael Times NewspaperP.O. Box 14
Carmichael, CA 95609
Sacramento
916-483-0946
carmichaeltimes.com

Ceres Courier2940 4th Street
Ceres, CA 95307
Stanislaus
209-537-5032
www.cerescourier.com/

Chico Enterprise-RecordP.O. Box 9
Chico, CA 95927-0009
530-891-1234
www.chicoer.com/

Chino ChampionP.O. Box 607
Chino, CA 91708
San Bernardino
909-628-5501
www.championnewspapers.com/

Claremont Courier1420 N. Claremont Boulevard
Claremont, CA 91711
Los Angeles
909-621-4761
www.claremont-courier.com/

Cloverdale Reveille207 N. Cloverdale Boulevard
Cloverdale, CA 95425
Sonoma
707-894-3339
www.cloverdalereveille.com/

Clovis IndependentP.O. Box 2355
Clovis, CA 93613
Fresno
559-298-8081
www.clovisindependent.com/

Coast NewsP.O. Box 232550
Encinitas, CA 92023-2550
760-436-9737
www.thecoastnews.com/

Coast NewsP.O. Box 232550
Encinitas, CA 92023-2550
760-436-9737
www.thecoastnews.com/

Coastal View News4856 Carpinteria Avenue
Carpinteria, CA 93013-1935
805-684-4428
www.coastalview.com/

Coastline PilotP.O. Box 248
Laguna Beach, CA 92652
Orange
949-494-4321
www.coastlinepilot.com/

Community Newspaper Group4645 Cass Street 2nd Floor
San Diego, CA 92109
San Diego
858-270-3103
www.sdnews.com/

Community VoiceP.O. Box 2038
Rohnert Park, CA 94927
Sonoma
707-285-3220
www.rpcotatinews.com/

Compton Bulletin800 E. Compton Boulevard
Compton, CA 90221
Los Angeles
310-635-6776
www.thecomptonbulletin.com/

Contra Costa Times2640 Shadelands Drive
Walnut Creek, CA 94598
Contra Costa
925-935-2525
www.contracostatimes.com/

Coronado Eagle & Journal1116 Tenth Street
Coronado, CA 92118-3402
619-437-8800
www.coronadonewsca.com/

Crestline Courier-NewsP.O. Box 2410
Lake Arrowhead, CA 92352
San Bernardino
909-336-3555
www.crestlinecourier-news.com/

CronicasP.O. Box 455
Rutherford, CA 94573
Napa
707-363-3021
www.cronicasnewspaper.com/

CulturadoorP.O. Box 1273
Turlock, CA 95381
Stanislaus
602-625-3311
www.culturadoor.com/

Culver City Observer4346 Sepulveda Boulevard
Culver City, CA 90230
Los Angeles
310-398-6397
www.culvercityobserver.com/

Cupertino Courier1095 The Alameda
San Jose, CA 95126
Santa Clara
408-200-1000
www.mercurynews.com/cupertino

Newspapers in California (B)

NameAddressContact

Bakersfield CalifornianP.O. Bin 440
Bakersfield, CA 93302-0440
661-395-7500
www.bakersfield.com/

Baypoint Press248 Oak Street
Brentwood, CA 94513
Contra Costa
925-634-1441
www.baypointpress.com/

Berkeley Daily Planet3023A Shattuck Avenue
Berkeley, CA 94705
Alameda
510-841-5600
www.berkeleydailyplanet.com

Big Bear GrizzlyP.O. Box 1789
Big Bear Lake, CA 92315
San Bernardino
909-866-3456
www.bigbeargrizzly.net/

Brentwood Grove118 E 7th Street
Antioch, CA 94509
Contra Costa
415-683-1392
www.brentwoodgrove.com/

Business JournalP.O. Box 1979
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91729-1979
909-989-4733
www.busjournal.com/

Business Journal1400 X Street
Sacramento, CA 95818
Sacramento
916-447-7661
sacramento.bizjournals.com/sacramento/

Business Times14 E. Carrillo Street, Suite A
Santa Barbara, CA 93101
Santa Barbara
805-560-6950
www.pacbiztimes.com/

Business Times275 Battery Street, Suite 940
San Francisco, CA 94111
San Francisco
415-989-2522
eastbay.bizjournals.com/eastbay/

Business Times275 Battery Street, Suite 940
San Francisco, CA 94111
San Francisco
415-989-2522
sanfrancisco.bizjournals.com/sanfrancisco/

Newspapers in California (A)

NameAddressContact

Acorn30423 Canwood Street, Suite108
Agoura Hills, CA 91301
Los Angeles
818-706-0266
www.theacorn.com/

Adobe PressP.O. Box 400
Santa Maria, CA 93456
Santa Barbara
805-925-2691
www.theadobepress.com/

Alameda Sun3215 Encinal Avenue
Alameda, CA 94501
Alameda
510-263-1470
www.alamedasun.com/

Alameda Times-Star7677 Oakport Street
Oakland, CA 94621
Alameda
510-208-6300
www.timesstar.com/

Almanac3525 Alameda de las Pulgas
Menlo Park, CA 94025-6558
650-854-2626
www.almanacnews.com/

Alpine Sun2144 Alpine Boulevard
Alpine, CA 91901
San Diego
619-445-3288
www.thealpinesun.com/

American Canyon Eagle3860 Broadway, Suite 202
American Canyon, CA 94503
Napa
707-553-8240
www.americancanyoneagle.com/

American River Messenger7405 Greenback Lane, Suite129
Citrus Heights, CA 95610-5603
916-773-1111
www.americanrivermessenger.com/

Antelope Valley PressP.O. Box 4050
Palmdale, CA 93590-4050
661-273-2700
www.avpress.com/

Antioch Grove118 E 7th Street
Antioch, CA 94509
Contra Costa
415-683-1392
www.antiochgrove.com/

Antioch Press248 Oak Street
Brentwood, CA 94513
Contra Costa
925-634-1441
www.antiochpress.com/

Appeal-DemocratP.O. Box 431
Marysville, CA 95901
Yuba
530-741-2345
www.appeal-democrat.com/

Arcata EyeP.O. Box 451
Arcata, CA 95518-0451
707-826-7000
www.arcataeye.com/

ArgonautP.O. Box 11209
Marina Del Rey, CA 90295-7209
310-822-1629
www.argonautnewspaper.com/

Argus Online401 13th Street
Oakland, CA 94612
Alameda
510-208-6300
www.insidebayarea.com/

Ark1550 Tiburon Boulevard
Belvedere Tiburon, CA 94920
Marin
415-435-2652
www.thearknewspaper.com/

Atascadero News5660 El Camino Real
Atascadero, CA 93422
San Luis Obispo
805-466-2585
www.atascaderonews.com/

Auburn JournalP.O. Box 5910
Auburn, CA 95604
Placer
530-885-5656
www.auburnjournal.com/

15 Ocak 2013 Salı

California State Government

California State Government

THE CALIFORNIA STATE CONSTITUTION
California's current constitution was ratified on May 7, 1879. It superseded a constitution adopted in 1849 after the conclusion of the Mexican-American War of 1848. The state's constitution has been amended and tweaked over the years; a key period for this was 1966-72 with the work of a revision committee.
The constitution of 1879 was adopted in a time of economic and social stress for the state, and reflected, say scholars, a certain lack of confidence in representative government. The document is thus quite long and detailed about many aspects of state government. Accordingly, California governance is highly complex. "No state has quite so many overlapping systems of accountability," declared The Economist in 2009. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has said he backs constitutional reform in hopes of making the government run more smoothly.
One notable aspect of the constitution is that it grants the electorate the right to change state laws via the initiative and referendum processes. In fact, ballot initiatives have left only about 25 percent of the state budget in the hands of elected representatives. The initiative process has resulted in many notable ballot measures over the years, including Proposition 13 (1978) on property taxes, Proposition 209 (1996) on affirmative action, and Proposition 8 (2008) on same-sex marriage.
California's constitution divides governing power among three equal branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Generally speaking, the executive and legislative branches work closely together to shape legislation.
EXECUTIVE BRANCH
Elected officers in the executive branch serve four-year terms. Passage in 1990 of Proposition 140 prohibited them from serving more than two terms in the same office (except for the insurance commissioner).
The elected officers in the executive branch are governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state (the state's chief elections officer and records keeper), state controller (who accounts for and disburses state money), state treasurer (the state's banker), state attorney general (the state's chief law enforcement officer), insurance commissioner (protects California's insurance consumers), and state superintendent of public instruction (elected on a nonpartisan basis to direct the Department of Education).
State agencies in the executive branch are Business, Transportation, and Housing; Environmental Protection; Health and Human Services; Labor and Workforce Development; Resources; and State and Consumer Services. Many departments, boards, commissions, and offices reside within these agencies, such as the Department of Motor Vehicles within the Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency; the Department of Public Health within the Health and Human Services Agency; and the Department of Fish and Game within the Resources Agency. The executive branch also has a number of stand-alone departments, boards, commissions, and offices (i.e., not residing within agencies) such as the Department of Food and Agriculture, the Board of Equalization, the California Film Commission, and the Office of the State Public Defender.
Governor
Executive power is vested in the governor, who is elected every four years and may serve no more than two four-year terms. Requirements for the governorship are quite basic: citizenship in the U.S.; being qualified to vote; and being a resident of the state for five years immediately preceding election.
The governor ensures that state laws are enforced, organizes and submits a budget to the California State Legislature, and makes an annual "State of the State" speech to the legislature. The governor can veto bills; a two-thirds vote in both the state assembly and the state senate overrides this veto. Also, the governor can veto particular budget items (line-item veto).
The governor appoints people to more than 2,000 positions throughout the executive branch, can call special sessions of the legislature, can order the California National Guard to duty, and makes judicial appointments that are subject to ratification by either the legislature or the Commission on Judicial Appointments.
Lieutenant Governor
The lieutenant governor is elected in the same election as the governor but is not the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate; California frequently has a governor and lieutenant governor from different parties. The lieutenant governor serves on a number of commissions and is president of the state senate (essentially an honorary position, but he/she can cast a tie-breaking vote on senate legislation). Technically speaking, the lieutenant governor assumes the powers of the governorship when the governor is out of the state, but by informal agreement, the lieutenant governor performs only perfunctory duties in such instances.
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
The California State Legislature is very nearly a full-time body consisting of 40 members of the California State Senate (the "upper house") and 80 members of the California State Assembly (the "lower house"). These men and women hold the principal lawmaking powers of the state. Members of both houses can introduce bills; a bill needs to pass both houses and receive the governor's signature to become law.
Members are elected from districts apportioned on the basis of population. Due to term limits enacted in 1990, state senators serve a maximum of two four-year terms; assembly members serve, at most, three two-year terms.
The President pro tempore of the State Senate is responsible for administration of the Senate (whereas the president of the Senate, the lieutenant governor, has very few, if any, administrative responsibilities). Meanwhile, the Speaker of the State Assembly has quite substantial powers and responsibilities.
Committees play key roles in the legislative process. Among the Senate's committees are Appropriations; Budget and Fiscal Review; and Education. Among the Assembly's committees are Appropriations; Budget; Health; and Transportation.
JUDICIAL BRANCH
California's judicial system interprets the laws of the state, settles disputes, determines guilt and innocence, and protects rights. This branch of California's government consists of four sub-branches: state courts, branch agencies, the State Bar of California, and the administrative and policy group. The Chief Justice of California is the head of the judicial branch, which has more than 2,000 judicial officers and 21,000 court employees.
Branch agencies of the California Judicial Branch are the Commission on Judicial Appointments, the Commission on Judicial Performance, and the Habeas Corpus Resource Center.
The State Bar of California, created by the state in 1927, currently counts more than 150,000 attorneys in its membership, all of the lawyers licensed to practice in the state. Indeed, the state bar describes itself as the "gatekeeper to the [legal] profession" in California. The state bar typically certifies more than 5,000 applicants annually as eligible for admission to practice law in the state. The state bar notes a "justice gap" in California and states that two of three low-income clients with meritorious cases are turned away for lack of lawyers.
The administrative and policy group of the California Judicial Branch includes the Judicial Council of California.
The state court system is three-tiered, consisting of the superior courts, the courts of appeal, and the supreme court.
Superior Court
The superior court system is the judicial tier closest to the population. Most court cases in the state originate here. One court is situated in each of the state's 58 counties; the system counts more than 450 offices statewide. Superior courts are sometimes referred to as "trial courts."
Proposition 220, in 1998, permitted judges in each county to merge their superior and municipal courts into a single superior court; all of the state's 58 counties have chosen this path. Superior courts preside over criminal cases, including felonies, misdemeanors, and traffic, and over family law, probate, juvenile, and civil matters.
Selection for a superior court judgeship can be somewhat complicated. It can involve either appointment by the governor or election by the voters, depending on when a vacancy occurs. If it is an appointment, the Commission on Judicial Nominees Evaluation conducts review. All superior court judges stand for re-election every six years. Qualifications for a judgeship are the same as for the supreme court: To be considered for appointment, a person must be a California-licensed attorney or have served as a judge of a court in the state for 10 years preceding appointment.
Courts of Appeal
The courts of appeal are housed in six districts statewide. Most of the cases in this sector involve appeals of superior court decisions (see next item). In common with the state supreme court (see preceding item), justices are selected by the governor and confirmed by the Commission on Judicial Appointments, after which their selection is put up for ratification by the voters. Three-judge panels decide cases. Eligibility requirements are the same as for the supreme court.
Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of California is the state's highest court; its decisions are binding on all state courts. It has seven members appointed by the governor and confirmed through a complex process: first, by a Commission on Judicial Appointments; second, by the voters at the next general election; and third, by voters after a 12-year term. To be considered for appointment, a person must be a California-licensed attorney or have served as a judge of a court in the state for 10 years preceding appointment.
LOCALITIES
California has 58 counties, 458 cities, and 22 towns. The terms "city" and "town" are legally interchangeable.
State Flag
California State Flag
State Seal
California State Seal
State Capitol
California State Capitol
State Senate
California State Senate
State House
California State Assembly
Supreme Court
California Supreme Court
State Mansion
California Governor's Mansion
State Capitol
California State Capitol Rotunda
State Capitol
Rotunda Sculpture of Columbus and Queen Isabella
State Capitol
Capitol Pediment featuring Minerva
State Capitol
Governor's Private Office (1906)
Author: World Trade Press

14 Ocak 2013 Pazartesi

California State Trees

California State Trees

Coast Redwood (common name)
Sequoia sempervirens
Giant Sequoia (common name)
Sequoiadendron giganteum (scientific name)

Overview

California redwood was designated the official state tree of California by the state legislature in 1937. Once common throughout the Northern Hemisphere, redwoods are found only on the Pacific Coast. Many groves and stands of the towering trees are preserved in state and national parks and forests.
There are actually two genera of this tree: coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). Both are the state trees of California. The coast redwoods are the tallest trees in the world; one reaching over 379 feet tall grows in Redwood National and State Parks. One giant sequoia, the General Sherman Tree in Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Park, is over 274 feet high and more than 102 feet in circumference at its base; it is widely considered to be the world's largest tree in overall volume.

Close-up

STATUS
Official
PHYSICAL DETAILS
  Coast RedwoodGiant Sequoia
Height370+ ft (113+ m)165-280 ft (50-95 m)
Diameter20 ft (7 m)18-57 ft (6-17 m)
Barkup to 12 in (30 cm) thick; soft, fibrous with a bright red-brown when freshly exposedfibrous, furrowed, and may be 3 ft (90 cm) thick at the base of the columnar trunk.
Seed Conesovoid, 15-32 mm long, with 15-25 spirally arranged scales4-7 cm long with 30-50 spirally arranged scales and an average of 230 seeds per cone.
Leavesdark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below; arranged spirallyawl-shaped, 3-6 mm long, and arranged spirally on the shoots
LIFESPAN
Coast Redwood has a lifespan of over 200 years, and Giant Sequoia can live for over 2,000 years.
HABITAT
Coast redwoods live along the foggy coast range, where they thrive in mild weather and rainfall up to 120 inches per year. Giant sequoias grow on the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, a much drier habitat.
 Coast RedwoodGiant Sequoia
Rangenarrow strip of land approximately 450 miles (750 km) in length and 5-35 miles (8-56 km) in width along the Pacific coastwestern Sierra Nevada, occurring in a total of 68 groves comprising a total area of only 35,607 acres (144.16 sq km)
Elevation100-3,300 ft (30-1,000 m)4,600-6,600 ft (1,400-2,000 m) in the north, and 5,600-7,000 ft  (1,700-2,150 m) to the south
REPRODUCTION
Type: sexual and asexual
Age at first seed production: 5-15 years
Seed maturity: 18-20 months (typically remain green and closed for up to 20 years)
Viability of seed: 15 percent
Pollination: late winter
TRIVIA
  • The trees are named after Sequoya (1770-1843), a Cherokee chief and inventor of the Cherokee alphabet—even though Sequoya lived in the southeast United States nowhere near the tree's habitat.
  • The giant sequoia is often regarded as the world's largest living thing. General Sherman, a tree measuring almost 275 feet (83.8 m) high with a volume of 52,508 cubic feet (1,486.9 m3), is the largest.  It is thought to be between 2,300-2,700 years old.
  • Redwoods can reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree collapses, it will generate a row of new trees along its trunk.

Click to enlarge an image
State Tree
California Redwood
State tree
California Redwood Leaves
State tree
California Redwood Cones
State tree
California Redwood Bark
State tree
Coast Redwood
Distribution Map (pdf) shows very small range, visible when image is enlarged

State Tree
Giant Sequoia
Distribution Map (pdf) shows very small range, visible when image is enlarged


CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom:Plantae
Phylum:Pinophyta
Class:Pinopsida
Order:Pinales
Family:Cupressaceae
Genus:Sequoia
Species:S. sempervirens
*Genus:Sequoiadendron
*Species:S. giganteum
Sources:
The California State Library
U.S. National Arboretum
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Author: World Trade Press