18 Şubat 2013 Pazartesi

Vermont State Bird

Vermont State Bird

Hermit Thrush (common name) 
Catharus guttatus 
(scientific name)


A small thrush with coloration that ranges from olive-brown to rusty-brown above, with a spotted white breast and a distinctive white eye-ring. Although it does not live in the state year round, it was chosen the state bird of Vermont in 1941 for its musical song, which is a harbinger of spring. The thrush eats beetles, ants, caterpillars, grasshoppers, crickets, spiders, earthworms, snails, small salamanders, and fruit (raspberries, pokeberries, grapes, elderberries). Its calls include a flute-like song often sung from a high open location, variable high-pitched whistles, and short chirps. The hermit thrush nests on or near the ground in a cup of leaves, twigs, and moss. Pairs sometimes raise two broods per year. The male feeds the female while she incubates the eggs, and he guards the nest by singing on a perch a short distance away. 


Wood thrush, dwarf thrush

Length to end of tail: 5.5–7.1 in (14–18 cm)
Wing from flexure: 9.8–11.4 in (25–29 cm)
Length to end of tail: 5.5–7.1 in (14–18 cm)
Wing from flexure: 9.8–11.4 in (25-29 cm)
0.8–1.3 oz (23–37 g)
0.8–1.3 oz (23–37 g)
Often forages on the ground and on low branches of shrubs and trees in woodland areas, searching for insects and berries. Hermit Thrushes can have a nervous look as they flick their wings and slowly pump their tail upon alighting. They have a swift direct flight and can hover for brief periods to catch insects on tree leaves or to pluck berries from vines. During the mating season, the male will establish a territory and perform a courtship ritual when a female arrives. In a reversal of usual bird courtship behavior, the male initially acts hostile, then he flies around the female in a circular pattern for three to four days before finally accepting her.
Breeds in mixed deciduous and coniferous forests, favoring forest edges near ponds, meadows, or small man-made clearings. Winters at lower altitudes in moist and dense forests, open woodlands, river valleys, coastal areas and, in the northern part of its range, in ravines.
Range: Winters primarily in the southern U.S., the U.S. Pacific coast, Mexico, and Central America.
Migration: Migratory
Conservation Status: Least Concern (LC)
Nesting Period: May–August
Size of Clutch: 2–5 eggs
Incubation Period: 11–13 days
Egg Description: Light greenish-blue, sometimes with a few brown spots
Egg Size: 1.0 in x 0.7 in (25 mm x 18 mm)
Swainson's thrush, Bicknell's thrush
  • The hermit thrush is the only thrush to over-winter in North America. Its diet switches from almost 100 percent insects in the summer to equal parts insects and fruit in winter. 
  • East of the Rocky Mountains, the hermit thrush will often nest on the ground, whereas in the west it is more likely to nest in a tree.
  • There was opposition to the choice of the hermit thrush as Vermont's state bird because, unlike the blue jay and crow with which it was competing, it leaves Vermont in winter. It is, however, found in all of Vermont's 14 counties, and its small stature, modest behavior, deep forest home, and industrious nature seem fitting as a symbol of the state.

Click to enlarge an image
State Bird
Hermit Thrush
State Bird
Hermit Thrush in Winter
State Bird
Juvenile Hermit Thrush
State Bird
Newly Hatched Hermit Thrush Chick
State Bird
Hermit Thrush
Distribution Map (pdf)

Species:C. guttatus
Author: World Trade Press

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