23 Nisan 2013 Salı

Northern Mariana IslandsTerritorial Gemstone

Northern Mariana IslandsTerritorial Gemstone


Coral, like pearl, is of organic origin, a product of marine invertebrates, and composed of more than 90 percent calcium carbonate. The species of coral that is used as a gemstone is calledcorallium rubrum, commonly known as precious coral or red coral. However, corals are not always red, pink, or salmon in color; they grow in a wide range of colors from red to white, blue, and even black.
The Marianas Trench Marine National Monument was created in January 2009 by executive order. The Marianas Trench is the deepest known canyon on earth. The waters of the Northern Marianas Islands are among the most biologically diverse in the western Pacific Ocean, and include the greatest diversity of submarine mountain and hydrothermal vent life yet discovered. These volcanic islands are ringed by coral ecosystems containing one of the most diverse collections of stony corals in the western Pacific. These relatively pristine coral reef ecosystems are objects of scientific interest and are essential to the long-term study of tropical marine ecosystems. Although the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands does not have an official gemstone, coral is representative of the territory’s geology and ecology.
The word coral may come from the Greek κορáλλιον (korallion), which denotes the hard, calcareous skeleton of the coral animals, or from an ancient Greek word pronounced kura-halos, meaning "mermaid," since the fine branches of the coral sometimes look like small figures. Alternatively, the word may be derived from the Hebrew גורל (goral), meaning lot or destiny. The word originally referred to objects used in drawing lots. Coral may have been used in this way, since coral branches were once used in oracles in Palestine, Asia Minor, and around the Mediterranean.
Coral is created from a protein secreted from tiny, cylindrical, underwater polyps that have tentacles and stinging cells. Corals live in colonies up to 6 feet (1.8 m) high. They grow into branches up to a height of 16 inches (40 cm), which are harvested by divers. Coral colonies create a habitat for crustaceans, bivalves, and fish.
Corals grow all over the world at all depths, but the finest quality specimens are usually found in warmer waters. In Hawaii, they grow at depths of about 100–300 feet (30–91 m), shallow enough to harvest using scuba equipment. Many harvesters, however, have died in pursuit of coral trees at the deep end of this range.
  • Japan
  • Taiwan
  • Malaysian archipelago
  • Red Sea
  • Bay of Biscay
  • Canary Islands
  • Northeast Australia
  • Midway Islands
  • Hawaii
  • Tyrrhenian Sea, off the coast of Sardinia
  • Tunisia
  • Algeria
  • Former Yugoslav republics
  • Turkey
Historical Uses
For centuries, coral has been harvested for a variety of uses, including idols, beads, cameos, medicine, and talismans. 
Modern Uses
Coral is often full of holes and cracks, but rare, high-quality coral is of an even color and lacks holes, cracks, blotches, and striations. Red coral, sometimes called fire coral, is the rarest and most valuable. The intense pink or red color of this species make it prized as a gem. To be used in jewelry, coral branches are cleaned, sorted, cut or filed, and polished from their natural matte finish to a high luster. It can take a few years for coral to grow large enough to be used in jewelry.
The Romans believed coral had the power to protect children and heal wounds. In many cultures, coral is still worn to protect the wearer from evil spirits. The mineral is said to relieve tension, decrease fear, and improve one’s social life. Hawaiians traditionally ground black coral into a powder for medicinal purposes.
Artificial coral is made of glass, plastic, and porcelain.
State Gemstone
Coral Reef
State Gemstone
Brain Coral
State Gemstone
Pillar Coral
State Gemstone
Spawning Coral
State Gemstone
Colorful Coral Reef
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
Crystal Structure: trigonal
Hardness (Mohs): 3-4
Color: Multiple colors, commonly white, red and black
Transparency: None
Pleochroism: None
Refractive Index: 1.486-1.658
Density: 2.6-2.7
Cleavage: None

Some data courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America
Author: World Trade Press

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