24 Mart 2013 Pazar

Hawaii: A Historical Timeline

Hawaii: A Historical Timeline

The first Polynesians arrive by outrigger canoe. The first island inhabitants are the Menehune, who come over 2,000 miles from the Marquesas Islands north of Tahiti.
More Polynesian migration to the Hawaiian Islands from the Society Islands.
Spanish sailors visit Hawaii and describe volcanic eruptions in their ship's log.
(January 18) Captain James Cook of the British Navy lands at Waimea Bay on Kauai while attempting to find the Northwest Passage between Alaska and Asia. He names the Hawaiian archipelago the Sandwich Islands in honor of the Earl of Sandwich.
Captain Cook is killed in a dispute with Hawaiians in Kealakekua Bay on the Big Island.
European and U.S. trading ships arrive in Hawaii on their way to trade with China.
Foreign diseases begin to kill many native Hawaiians.
The first Chinese arrive after jumping off an English trading ship that stops in Kauai.
Hawaii is placed under the protectorate of Great Britain.
Kamehameha becomes king and begins uniting the Hawaiian islands with the help of foreign weapons.
All Hawaiian islands are united under Kamehameha's rule.
The Spanish advisor to King Kamehameha introduces coffee and pineapple to the islands. Both crops will become integral to the Hawaiian agricultural industry.
Russian soldiers fail in their attempt to build Fort Elizabeth on Kauai.
Volcano House, a series of hotels at the edge of the Kīlauea volcano, opens to tourists on the Big Island. At the time, lodging is one dollar per person per night.
King Kamehameha commissions the first Hawaiian flag. The design now serves as Hawaii's state flag.
King Kamehameha I dies. His son Liholiho becomes Kamehameha II.
King Kamehameha II ends the ancient kapu ("forbidden") system of taboos by eating meals with women.
American traders looking for sandalwood and whales begin arriving in Hawaii.
Protestant missionaries arrive from New England and begin converting many Hawaiians to Christianity.
The first coffee is planted in Kona. Kona coffee would develop a reputation making it one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees in the world.
Catholic missionaries that had arrived in the 1820s are forced out under threat of imprisonment.
Ladd & Company founds the first sugar plantation on Kauai. Sugar plantations would become Kauai's most important industry.
Ground is broken to build Honolulu's Kawaiahao Church, the first Christian church in Hawaii. Fourteen thousand coral slabs are quarried by hand from the reefs to build the main structure.
Kamehameha III issues the Hawaiian Declaration of Rights. Catholics receive religious freedom.
Hawaii adopts its first constitution, changing the government from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
The First House of Representatives meets.
The first classes begin at Punahou School, founded for the children of missionaries. Today it is the largest independent school in the U.S. with nearly 4,000 students.
Lord George Paulet seizes Hawaii for England. However, Paulet's superior, Admiral Richard Thomas, repudiates Paulet's actions and restores the Hawaiian government.
King Kamehameha III signs the Great Mahele, which allows commoners and haoles (non-Hawaiians) to own land.
French admiral Legoarant de Tromelin fails in his attempt to invade Hawaii.
(August 31) King Kamehameha III declares Honolulu a city.
The first steam-propelled ship is used for inter-island service.
The first group of indentured Chinese plantation workers arrive. Between 1852 and 1856, several thousand Chinese are brought to the plantations for work. In the 21st century, Chinese-Americans comprise about 5 percent of the Hawaiian population.
A smallpox epidemic kills over 5,000 Hawaiians.
King Kamehameha III dies and Kamehameha IV becomes king.
Building of the Queen's Hospital, Hawaii's first, begins. The king and queen had personally fundraised door-to-door for the hospital, which is now the largest private hospital in Hawaii.
Elizabeth Sinclair purchases Niihau Island from King Kamehameha IV for $10,000.
King Kamehameha IV dies and Kamehameha V becomes king.
The first migrant workers arrive in Hawaii from Yokohama, Japan. In the 21st century, Japanese-Americans comprise about 17 percent of the Hawaiian population.
Kalaupapa Leper Settlement on the isolated peninsula of Moloka'I is established in an attempt to control the spreading of the disease. It is founded by missionary Father Damien, who eventually succumbs to leprosy himself in 1889.
King Kamehameha V dies. William Lunalilo is confirmed as king after an informal popular vote by the Hawaiian Legislature.
Hawaii signs a treaty with the U.S. granting it exclusive trading rights.
The Reciprocity Treaty allows for duty-free importation of Hawaiian sugar cane and rice into the U.S. This promotes sugar cane plantation and rice agriculture in Hawaii instead of local staples like taro.
King Kalakaua dedicates Kapiolani Park, the oldest and largest public park in Hawaii. It is named after Queen Kapiolani.
Portuguese immigrants arrive on the islands. Between 1878 and 1887, about 17,500 will come to Hawaii.
The first German immigrants arrive on the islands. German-Americans now represent the fourth largest ancestry group on the islands.
Macadamia nuts are introduced to the islands. They will eventually become another of Hawaii's major exports.
The 1887 Constitution imposes income and property requirements for voting. Only wealthy Europeans, Americans, and native Hawaiians have full voting rights.
King Kalakaua gives the U.S. exclusive use of Pearl Harbor as a naval base to encourage trade between the two nations.
King Kalakaua dies and Queen Liliuokalani is the only ruling queen to ever take control of the Hawaiian Islands.
American colonists, controlling Hawaii's economy, overthrow the Hawaiian Kingdom to bring about the Republic of Hawaii.
(July 4) The Republic of Hawaii is established.
Sanford B. Dole, the cousin of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company's James Dole, is appointed president of the republic. Dole serves until 1900 and is the republic's only president. He actively lobbies Congress to secure Hawaii's annexation by the United States.
Queen Liliuokalani abdicates her throne.
Hawaii is annexed to the U.S. and becomes a U.S. territory.
Okinawans and Puerto Ricans arrive on the islands.
The Great Chinatown Fire results from fires set by the Board of Health to burn buildings infected by the bubonic plague of 1899. The fire burns for 17 days and destroys 38 acres of Honolulu. Seven thousand homeless Chinese are moved to detention camps, where they are quarantined until April 30. Critics contend the fires are racially motivated.
The Hawaiian Pineapple Company (now Dole) is established. The first pineapples are planted in the Wahiawa countryside.
The first major group of Korean immigrants arrives on the islands from Inchon. Upon arrival, immigrants are scattered to plantations on Oahu and the Big Island.
Filipinos arrive on the islands. Between 1907 and 1931, nearly 120,000, recruited as plantation laborers, make the journey.
The first large group of Samoans immigrates to the islands
Prince Jonah Kalanianaole Kuhio, the last powerful member of the Hawaiian royal family, dies.
James Dole buys the island of Lanai and turns it into the world's largest pineapple plantation.
Dredging of the Ala Wai Canal begins in Honolulu. Its purpose is to drain rice paddies and swamps, eventually clearing the way for the resort area of Waikiki. The project will be completed in 1928.
The Federal Exclusion Act, motivated by increasing hostility towards the Japanese, almost completely halts any further immigration from Japan.
Labor riots at Hanapepe, Kauai kill 16 workers and 4 police officers.
(March) John Rodgers Airport opens in March; it's renamed Honolulu Airport in 1947.
Stanley C. Kennedy makes the first inter-island flight in an amphibious plane from Honolulu to Hilo via Maui and Kauai. Later, service is added to Molokai. At the time, passenger fares range from $17-$32 one way.
The first trans-Pacific flight from San Francisco to Honolulu by PanAm airways takes 21.5 hours and inaugurates airmail service from the mainland to Hawaii.
Hickam Field is dedicated for the Army Air Corps (although it's not officially activated until 1938). When Japanese forces attack in 1941, they bomb Hickam Field to eliminate air opposition and keep U.S. planes grounded.
(December 7) The bombing of Pearl Harbor and Oahu by Japan results in 189 deaths. President Franklin Roosevelt refers to it as "a day which will live in infamy" in his now-famous address. As a result of the attack, the U.S. declares war on Japan and enters World War II. Martial law is declared in Hawaii and the military assumes control until October 24, 1944.
(September 2) Japan signs an unconditional surrender on the U.S.S. Battleship Missouri. The ship is still docked in Pearl Harbor.
A massive tsunami (tidal wave) hits Hilo on the Big Island, killing over 100 people and resulting in $25 million in damage.
(July 11) The newly united Pineapple Workers Union lead a strike for better wages and working conditions. It lasts five days, ending with favorable terms for the union.
The eruption of the Mauna Loa volcano destroys the village of Ho'okena mauka.
At the height of the "Red Scare," a group who come to be known as the Hawaii 7 is arrested, charged under the Smith Act for conspiring to overthrow the government. They are convicted after a two-year trial, and later released in 1958.
The "Democratic Revolution" uses newly unionized workers and college-educated, postwar veterans to oust the Hawaii Republican Party, which many view as corrupt, from the legislature and replace it with the Democratic Party.
(August 21) Hawaii becomes the 50th state in the Union.
(March) Hawaii becomes the first state to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment. It does so unanimously.
Sugar and pineapple plantation workers begin a 39-day strike.
The first Asian-American governor, George Ariyoshi, is elected in Hawaii.
Basalt lava flows erupt from Kilauea Volcano on the Big Island, destroying nearly 200 houses and severing the coastal highway.
John Waihee, the first governor of Hawaiian descent, is elected.
Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane to hit Hawaii in recorded history, kills six people and causes nearly $2 billion in damages.
U.S. Congress passes the Public Law 103-150, which corrects misinformation regarding the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy and apologizes for the suppression of the "inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people."
Ben Cayetano becomes the first governor of Filipino descent elected in the U.S.
The last sugar plantation on the Big Island closes.
The U.S. Supreme Court declares that restricting voting in the Office of Hawaiian Affairs to native Hawaiians violates the 15th Amendment.
(March) Six weeks of rain results in major damage from flooding on the islands.
(October 15) A 6.7 magnitude earthquake on the Big Island results in property damage, landslides, tsunamis, power outages, and airport delays. The famous Mauna Kea Beach Hotel's entire south end collapses and it is shut down indefinitely. After a $150-million reconstruction, it reopens in December 2008.
The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 (the Akaka Bill) is introduced in Congress for the sixth time. The bill seeks to allow Native Hawaiians to seek a special status similar to that of Native Americans, but the bill fails to pass.


Click to enlarge an image

1100: The Society Islands, 2,000 miles to the south of Hawaii

1778: James Cook

1779: The Death of Cook, by John Cleveley

1795: Kamehameha I, also known as Kamehameha the Great

1810: Statue of King Kamehameha I in Kapa'au. It is decorated with floral leis on Kamehameha Day.

1813: Pineapples

1815: Staircase, Ruins at Fort Elizabeth

1816: The Volcano House as it stood in about 1912

1819: Kamehameha II, second king of the Kingdom of Hawaii
1838: Kawaiaha'o Church. Known as the Westminster Abbey of Hawaii, it has been the site of coronations, christenings and funerals.
1839: Kamehameha III, Hawaii's longest-reigning monarch

1850: Queen Street, Honolulu, by George Henry Burgess
1863: Kamehameha IV, born Alexander ʻIolani Liholiho Keawenui, fourth king of the United Kingdom of Hawaii 1855–1863
1863: Kamehameha V, reigned 1863–1872
1872: Lunalilo I, born William Charles Lunalilo. His one-year reign ended February 3, 1874.
1876: Taro plant. Its corm is a carbohydrate staple; the leaves are also used.
1877: King David Kalakaua
1877: Kapi'olani, Queen Consort of Hawaii
1895: Lili'uokalani, last monarch and only queen regnant of the Kingdom of Hawaii

1895: Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole of Hawaii was a prince when the Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown.
1941: USS Arizona burning and sinking in Pearl Harbor
1959: Ballot (inset) and referendum results for the Admission Act of 1959. All representative districts voted at least 93% in favor of admission.
1992: Satellite image of Iniki near peak intensity
1993: Rainbow with volcanic ash and sulfur dioxide emissions from Halema'uma'u vent

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