24 Mart 2013 Pazar


Kanamaruza Theater, a traditional kabuki theater
Kabuki (歌舞伎) is a traditional Japanese form of theater with roots tracing back to the Edo Period. It is recognized as one of Japan's three major classical theaters along with noh and bunraku, and has been named as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage.
What is it?
Kabuki is an art form rich in showmanship. It involves elaborately designed costumes, eye-catching make-up, outlandish wigs, and arguably most importantly, the exaggerated actions performed by the actors. The highly-stylized movements serve to convey meaning to the audience; this is especially important since an old-fashioned form of the Japanese language is traditionally being used, which is difficult even for some Japanese people to understand.
Dynamic stage sets such as revolving platforms and trapdoors allow for the prompt changing of a scene or the appearance/disappearance of actors. Another specialty of the kabuki stage is a footbridge (hanamichi) that leads through the audience, allowing for a dramatic entrance or exit. Ambiance is aided with live music performed usingtraditional Japanese instruments. The various elements combine to produce a visually stunning and captivating performance.
Plots are usually based on historical events, warm hearted dramas, moral conflicts, love stories, tales of tragedy of conspiracy, or other well-known stories. A unique feature of a kabuki performance is that what is on show is often only part of an entire story (usually the best part). Therefore, to enhance the enjoyment derived, it would be good to read a little about the story before attending the show. At some theaters, it is possible to rent headsets which provide English narrations and explanations.
Former Kabukiza Theater, a modern kabuki theater
Kabuki conventions
When it originated, kabuki used to be acted only by women, and was popular mainly among common people. Later during the Edo Period, a restriction was placed by the Tokugawa Shogunate forbidding women from participating; to the present day it is performed exclusively by men. Several male kabuki actors are therefore specialists in playing female roles (onnagata).
One of the things that will be noticed are assistants dressed in black appearing on stage. They serve the purpose to hand the actors props or assist them in various other ways, in order to make the performance seamless. They are called "kurogo" and are to be regarded as non-existent.
If you come across people from the audience shouting out names at the actors on stage, do not mistake this for an act of disrespect: all kabuki actors have a yago (hereditary stage name), which is closely associated to the theater troupe which he is from. In the world of kabuki, troupes are closely knit hierarchical organizations, usually continued through generations within families. It is an accepted practice for the audience to shout out the actors' stage names as a show of support.
Formal dress code is not required when attending a kabuki play, although decent dressing and footwear are recommended. Sometimes, often on the first day of a run, some ladies dress in traditional kimono.
Rotating stage of a traditional kabuki theater from below
Where to watch it
In the olden days, mainstream kabuki had been performed at selected venues in big cities like Edo (present dayTokyo), Osaka and Kyoto. Local versions of kabuki also took place in rural towns. These days, the Kabukiza Theater in the Ginza district of Tokyo is the best place for foreign tourists to watch kabuki, but the theater is currently being reconstructed until 2013.
Modern theaters are equipped with Western style seats. A day's performance is usually divided into two segments (one in the early afternoon and one towards the evening), and each segment is further divided into acts. Tickets are usually sold per segment, although in some cases they are also available per act. They typically cost between 3,000 and 14,000 yen.
Below are some venues where kabuki can be watched:
Shimbashi Enbujo Theater
5 minute walk from Higashi-ginza Station (Hibiya/Asakusa Subway Lines) or Tsukijishijo Station (Oedo Subway Line)
This theater temporarily serves as the replacement for the Kabukiza that it is currently being reconstructed until spring 2013. Runs go on for about three weeks every month. English headsets are available for rental.
National Theatre
5 minute walk from Hanzomon Station (Hanzomon Subway Line) or 10 minute walk from Nagatacho Station (Yurakucho/Hanzomon/Nanboku Subway Lines)
Programs vary monthly, and include kabuki or bunraku performances, as well as kabuki appreciation workshops for beginners. English headsets are available for rental.
Minamiza Theater
In the Gion district, just next to Keihan Gion-shijo Station or 5 minute walk from Hankyu Kawaramachi Station
About two runs of three weeks per year, usually one during spring and the other during autumn, are performed.
Shochikuza Theater
In the Dotombori District near Namba Station
Three to five runs per year, each lasting between three to four weeks. English headsets are unavailable, but an English program book can be purchased at the information counter.
Hakataza Theater
Next to Nakasu Kawabata Subway Station
Two runs per year, one in February and one in June, are usually performed at this theater.
Historical Theaters
These theaters no longer primarily serve as venues for performances, but are maintained for visitors to experience the feel and structure of a traditional kabuki theater. One distinct feature of traditional theaters is the absence of Western style seats. Instead, the audience is seated on cushions laid on the floor within squarish areas separated by wooden beams.
Kanamaruza Theater (more details)
15 minute walk from JR Kotohira Station or Kotoden Kotohira Station
Hours: 9:00 to 17:00
Admission: 500 yen
This wonderful, historic theater is open to tourists to explore on their own. Kabuki performances are held only for a couple of weeks in April. The Kanamaruza stands just a few steps away from the main approach towards Kompira Shrine.
Uchikoza Theater (more details)
5-10 minute walk from JR Uchiko Station
Hours: 9:00 to 16:30
Admission: 300 yen
Also located on Shikoku, the Uchikoza Theater used to stage both kabuki and bunraku performances, but these days only bunraku performances are held infrequently. For most of the year, the theater is open for tourists to explore.

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