24 Mart 2013 Pazar

The Revolutionary War: A Historical Timeline

The Revolutionary War: A Historical Timeline

1760(October 25) George III ascends the throne in England.
1763(February 10) The Treaty of Paris is signed between England and France, ending the French and Indian War. France gives Canada and all its land east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain for its growing empire.
1763(October 7) King George issues the Royal Proclamation. It creates a boundary between the British colonies and the American Indians' land west of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists are banned from settling past the line.
1765(March 22) Parliament passes the Stamp Act, requiring many documents to be printed on special revenue-stamped paper produced in London. Britain uses the taxes to pay for British troops stationed on the American frontier. Colonists believe the law is a violation of their rights as Englishmen to be taxed only with their consent.
1765(October 19) The Stamp Act Congress becomes the first significant joint colonial response to any British measure, consisting of delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies. They pass the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, a document that says only colonial assemblies have a right to tax the colonies unless Parliament grants them the right to vote. No taxation without representation becomes a rallying cry of the early revolution.
1766(March 18) The Stamp Act is repealed, but parliament passes the Declaratory Act. It states that Great Britain had the right to make laws for the colonies, "in all cases whatsoever."
1767(April 16) Parliament proposes the Townshend Acts. The law puts taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea to raise £40,000 a year to cover the cost of administration in the colonies. Riots and protests break out throughout the colonies and the call for revolution is heard for the first time since the Stamp Act.
1768(October 1) Troops from England and Nova Scotia occupy Boston. Bostonians established non-importation agreements in protest. They quickly spread to the other colonies.
1770(March 5) The tension from the British military presence in Boston explodes into brawls between soldiers and civilians. British troops are attacked by a rioting crowd and fire their muskets. Three colonists are killed and eleven are injured. Patriots label the killings the Boston Massacre.
1773(December 16) Officials in Boston refuse to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain. A group of colonists board the ships and throw the tea into Boston Harbor in protest.
1774(March 31) Parliament enacts the Boston Port Act in response to the Boston Tea Party. It is the first of five laws that will come to be known as the Intolerable Acts. The law closes Boston's port until the East India Company is reimbursed for the tea destroyed in the Boston Tea Party. Other effects of the Intolerable Acts include the expansion of the Canadian border south to the Ohio River, and the replacement of Massachusetts' government with a new council appointed by the King, requiring colonists to house British troops in their homes. The acts are meant to make an example of Massachusetts, but instead unite the colonies against the British.
1774(September 5) Delegates from 12 colonies meet in Philadelphia for the First Continental Congress. They make a pact between the colonies that says that if the Intolerable Acts are not repealed by the 10th, they will stop all exports to Great Britain. They also agree to meet on May 10, 1775 for a Second Continental Congress.
1775(April 18–19) British general Thomas Gage sends regiments of British soldiers stationed in Boston to Lexington, Massachusetts, to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and to neighboring Concord to seize gunpowder. Word of his plan leaks and a group of horseback riders, including Paul Revere, warn the countryside that British troops are coming. Local militias gather and the first shots fire just before sunrise. In the view of the colonists, an imperial army has attempted to arrest colonial leaders, and patriots have been killed in their defense. Revolution has started.
(May 10) The Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia to discuss the management of the war. They appoint George Washington as the Supreme Commander of the Continental Army, authorize printing money, and appoint committees to deal with foreign governments. The Congress is now a full governing body over the colonies.
Colonial forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold launch a surprise attack and capture Fort Ticonderoga. The fort becomes extremely important to the Americans' cause. They use the outpost to bombard the British during the siege of Boston and to control the Hudson River, preventing the British from invading North from Canada.
1775(June 17) The British attack Breed's Hill in an attempt to break a siege of Boston. Continental troops run out of powder and retreat after two unsuccessful charges. Although the hill is abandoned, the siege holds. The battle boosts the morale of the colonials, while the British suffer heavy casualties and consider the hard-fought victory an embarrassment.
1775(July 5) Congress drafts the Olive Branch Petition. It is the last attempt by the colonies to peacefully end the revolution. King George believes the American rebellion will be stopped quickly on the battlefield and refuses to accept the petition.
1775(November) General Richard Montgomery leads an attack into Canada. He hopes to force the British to defend Canada, and lead them away from New England. He successfully captures Montreal, but is stopped and killed in battle for Quebec.
1775(November 28) The Continental Congress authorizes the creation of the American Navy. The Americans rely on the French Navy for most of the major battles and military maneuvers in the war, but American ships disrupt British trade routes.
1776(March 17) After a yearlong siege, the British are forced to evacuate Boston. The British navy relocates to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
1776(July 4) In what is now known as Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence. The war is no longer a battle against oppression; it is now a fight for independence.
1775(August 23) King George III issues the Proclamation of Rebellion. Submit to British rule or win their independence war.
1776(August 27) The Continental Army looses to British forces at the Battle of Long Island. It is the first major battle of the war since the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The fighting ends in a full-scale, nighttime evacuation by Washington and his men.
1776(September 15) British troops occupy New York City without a fight.
1776(September 16) The British are flanked and defeated by the Continental Army while chasing Washington across Manhattan. The battle is Washington's first victory of the war.
1776(December) Benjamin Franklin travels Paris to convince the French to form an alliance with the United States.
1776(December 25) Washington and his army cross the Delaware River into Trenton, New Jersey, under severe weather. They surprise a battalion of sleeping Hessians. Almost two-thirds of the 1,500-man garrison is captured with little fighting. Although the victory is small, it inspires soldiers after a series of losses at White Plains and Fort Washington. New recruits start to arrive, and soldiers reenlist for longer tours of duty in the Continental Army.
1777(July 5) After the Americans abandon Fort Ticonderoga, General John Burgoyneretakes it for the British without a fight.
1777(June 27) The Marquis de Lafayette defies French authorities and arrives in America to help with the Revolution.
1777(July 23) General Sir William Howe leaves New York City with 15,000 soldiers on a campaign to take Philadelphia.
1777(September 26) After loses by Washington at Brandywine and Germantown, Philadelphia is lost to the British. The British think capturing the American capital will end the war, but the Continental Congress relocates to York, Pennsylvania, and the revolution goes on for another six years.
1777(October 17) Burgoyne loses at Saratoga, New York, and becomes the first British General to surrender to Continental forces. The American victory stops the British campaign to divide New England in half and legitimizes the war effort to countries overseas.
1777(December 19) Washington's army retires for the winter at Valley Forge. The winter is long and harsh, but the American troops use the time to train as a professional army.
1778(February 6) France signs the Treaty of Alliance with the United States and becomes the first country to officially recognize America's independence. They provide uniforms, supplies, and ammunition to the poorly supplied Continental Army. Britain declares war on France and the American Revolution becomes an international war.
1778(March 8) After their failure to split the north, the British change their war strategy to focus on the south. They believe more Americans loyal to the British crown live in the southern states and will help fight the rebellion. Activity in the north is scaled back to raids and harbor blockades.
1778(June 18) The British, afraid of a French naval assault, abandon Philadelphia and withdraw to New York.
1778(December 29) The British capture Savannah, Georgia, in the first stage of their southern strategy.
1779(June 21) Spain declares war on Great Britain, but refuses to ally with the Americans over fear of starting rebellion in their own colonies. Britain must now stretch their soldiers and resources even further to wage war in the Spanish territories and defend a three-year siege of Gibraltar.
1779(July 8) The British burn and capture Fairfield, Connecticut.
1779(July 11) The British burn and capture Norwalk, Connecticut.
1779(October 18) A combined American and French siege fails to retake Savannah. The British hold the city until the end of the war.
1780(May 12) British attack and capture Charleston, South Carolina.
1780(September 25) Benedict Arnold's plans to cede West Point to the British for £20,000 and a commission as a major general in the British army are uncovered. Arnold escapes to join the British, but his liaison is caught and hung as a spy.
1780(October 7) American troops led by Isaac Shelby and John Sevier defeat Maj. Patrick Ferguson in the battle of King's Mountain. The battle only lasts 65 minutes, but the British loose one-third of General Lord Cornwallis's army.
1780(December 20) The British accuse the Dutch of breaking neutrality and declare war on Holland.
1781(January 30) Almost three years after the official deadline has passed, Maryland becomes the final state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. The new nation is now officially called the United States of America.
1781(March 15) Nathanael Greene's American forces meet Cornwallis at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse. Cornwallis wins the battle, but looses another quarter of his army.
1781(June 6) Americans recapture Augusta, Georgia.
1781(July 11) The British evacuate Savannah, Georgia.
1781(September 5) A French fleet drives the British navy from Chesapeake Bay. The victory prevents the Royal Navy from resupplying or evacuating a depleted and besieged Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. It also prevents the British from interfering with the reinforcement of Washington's army across the bay.
1781(October 19) American and French forces trap Lord Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown, Virginia. He surrenders his British army. Although Cornwallis only commanded a fourth of British troops in the United States, the loss convinces British officials they are losing the war.
1783(September 3) The United States and Great Britain sign the Treaty of Paris, formally ending the war. Under the terms of the treaty, Britain recognizes the United States of America as an independent nation and agrees to withdraw all of its troops from its former colony. The treaty also sets the borders for the United States from the Great Lakes to Florida and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. The United States agrees to let British troops still in America leave the country and pays off all existing debts owed to Britain.

-World Trade Press

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