24 Mart 2013 Pazar

New Jersey State Animal

New Jersey State Animal

Horse (common name)
Equus ferus caballus
(scientific name)


The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating and breeding horses around 6,000 years ago. Horse breeds are divided into three categories based on general temperament: "hot bloods," "cold bloods," and "warm bloods." Hot bloods are seen as difficult to manage, while cold bloods are much more docile. There are over 300 breeds of horses in the world today, developed for many different uses. Populations of true wild horses still exist, but they are endangered. Representing power and strength, the horse became New Jersey's state animal in 1977.


Horses have many coat colors and distinctive markings. However, all horse colors begin with a genetic base of "red" (chestnut) or black, with the addition of alleles for spotting, graying, suppression or dilution of color, or other effects. The teeth of horses are adapted to grazing. An adult horse has 12 incisors and 24 premolars and molars. Stallions and geldings have four additional teeth just behind the incisors. Horses have the largest eyes of any land mammal, and because their eyes are positioned on the sides of their heads, they have a range of vision of more than 350 degrees. They also have excellent night vision. Horses have a great sense of balance and sense where the body and limbs are at all times.
Size6–18 hands (64–72 inches, 163–183 cm)6–18 hands (64–72 inches, 163–183 cm)
Weight380–1,000 kg (1,500–2,200 lb)380–1,000 kg (1,500–2,200 lb)
25-30 years
Horses are prey animals and their first response to threat is to startle and usually flee. But in cases where flight is not possible, or when their young are threatened, they do stand their ground and defend themselves or their offspring. Some breeds of horses are docile, particularly certain large draft horses. Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness, and endurance.
Horses are herd animals, with a clear hierarchy of rank led by a dominant animal, usually a mare (a mature female). They are also social creatures who are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans. They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming, and body language.
All horses have four basic gaits: the four-beat walk, the two-beat trot or jog, the canter or lope, and the gallop. Because they are domesticated animals, their behavior (including what they eat, how they breed, and their normal activities) are all dictated by humans.
Top speed:
 The world speed record for a horse galloping over a short, sprint distance is 88 km per hour (55 mph).
Most horses only need quality forage, water, and a salt or mineral block. Grain or other concentrates are often not necessary. Horses prefer to eat small amounts of food steadily throughout the day, as they do in nature when grazing on pasture.
Breeding interval: Annual
Average litter size: 1 foal; Twins are very rare
Height: At the withers, a foal is 60 percent of its mature height at birth.
Weight: A foal weighs approximately 10 percent of the dam's weight.
  • The largest horse in recorded history was probably a Shire horse named Mammoth, who was born in 1848. He stood 21.2½ hands high (86.5 in/220 cm), and his peak weight was estimated at 1,500 kg (3,300 lb).
  • The current record holder for the world's smallest horse is Thumbelina, a fully mature miniature horse affected by dwarfism. She is 17 inches (43 cm) tall and weighs 27 kg (60 lb).

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State Animal
State Animal
Mares and Foals
State Animal
Wild Horses
State Animal
Beautiful Chestnut Horse

Species:E. ferus
Subspecies:E. f. caballus
Data Source: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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